President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus signed a new law on Thursday that gives him lifelong immunity from criminal prosecution and prevents opposition leaders living abroad from running in future presidential elections.

The law theoretically applies to any former president and members of his or her family.

In reality, it is only relevant to Mr Lukashenko, 69, who has ruled Belarus with an iron fist for almost 30 years.

The new measure appears aimed at further shoring up Mr Lukashenko’s power and eliminating potential challengers in the country’s next presidential election, which is due to take place in 2025.

Belarus Crackdown Activist
Protesters carry a wounded man during clashes with police in Minsk, Belarus, in 2020 (AP)

The law significantly tightens requirements for presidential candidates and makes it impossible to elect opposition leaders who fled to neighbouring countries in recent years.

Only citizens of Belarus who have permanently lived in the country for at least 20 years and have never had a residence permit in another country are eligible to run.

Belarus was rocked by mass protests during Mr Lukashenko’s controversial re-election in August 2020 for a sixth term, which the opposition and the West condemned as fraudulent.

At that time, Belarusian authorities detained more than 35,000 people, many of whom were tortured in custody or left the country.

Mr Lukashenko also has been accused of involvement in the illegal transfer of children from Russian-occupied towns in Ukraine to Belarus.

Belarus Crackdown Activist
Artist Ales Pushkin, who died while imprisoned in Belarus after human rights activists said authorities deprived him of medical care, in front of a police blockade in 2020 (AP)

According to the text of the new law, Mr Lukashenko, were he to leave power, “cannot be held accountable for actions committed in connection with exercising his presidential powers”.

The law also says the president and members of his family will be provided with lifelong state protection, medical care, life and health insurance.

After resigning, the president would also become a permanent lifelong member of the upper house of parliament.

Opposition leader Svetlana Tikhanovskaya, who fled to neighbouring Lithuania in 2020, said the new law is Mr Lukashenko’s response to his “fear of an inevitable future”, suggesting he must be concerned about what happens to him when he leaves power.

“Lukashenko, who ruined the fates of thousands of Belarusians, will be punished according to international law, and no immunity will protect him against this, it’s only a matter of time,” Ms Tikhanovskaya said.

The country’s political opposition is seeking an investigation into the disappearances of opposition politicians and the removal of Ukrainian children from Ukraine.

“We will ensure that the dictator is brought to justice,” Ms Tikhanovskaya said, emphasizing that there are still about 1,500 political prisoners behind bars in Belarus, including Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ales Bialiatski.